Ozone absorbs the bulk of solar ultraviolet radiation in wavelengths from 290 nm – 320 nm (UV-B radiation). Atmosphere was invented by seventeenth century Scientists from Greek words for vapor, atmos, and sphere sphaira.
atmosphere academy – Peeling Back The Layers Of The Atmosphere
The atmosphere is a cloud of gas and suspended solids extending from the Earth’s surface out many thousands of miles, becoming increasingly thinner with distance but always held by the Earth’s gravitational pull. From the middle of the stratosphere and up, the temperature pattern undergoes a sudden change, sharply increasing with height. Much of this temperature change is due to increasing levels of ozone concentration which absorbs ultraviolet radiation. The temperature can reach a balmy 65deg.F (18deg.C) in the upper stratosphere near an altitude of 25 miles (40km) high.
Mercury and Mars have some of the right ingredients, but their atmospheres are far too thin to support life. The atmosphere of Venus is too thick—the planet’s surface temperature is more than 460 degrees Celsius (860 degrees Fahrenheit).
The circulation of the atmosphere occurs due to thermal differences when convection becomes a more efficient transporter of heat than thermal radiation On planets where the primary heat source is solar radiation, excess heat in the tropics is transported to higher latitudes. When a planet generates a significant amount of heat internally, such as is the case for Jupiter , convection in the atmosphere can transport thermal energy from the higher temperature interior up to the surface.
After around 3 billion years, the photosynthetic system evolved, meaning that single-celled organisms used the sun’s energy to turn molecules of carbon dioxide and water into sugar and oxygen gas. This dramatically increased oxygen levels , Frey told Live Science. “And that is the biggest pollution event, you might say, that life has ever done to anything, because it slowly transformed the planet,” he said.
Wind erosion is a significant factor in shaping the terrain of rocky planets with atmospheres, and over time can erase the effects of both craters and volcanoes In addition, since liquid s can not exist without pressure, an atmosphere allows liquid to be present at the surface, resulting in lakes , rivers and oceans Earth and Titan are known to have liquids at their surface and terrain on the planet suggests that Mars had liquid on its surface in the past.
Mesosphere – The mesosphere covers the next 50 miles beyond the stratosphere. This is where most meteors burn up upon entry. The coldest place on Earth is at the top of the mesosphere. level of Earth’s atmosphere, extending from 10 kilometers (6 miles) to 50 kilometers (31 miles) above the surface of the Earth.
The division of the atmosphere into layers mostly by reference to temperature is discussed above. Temperature decreases with altitude starting at sea level, but variations in this trend begin above 11 km, where the temperature stabilizes through a large vertical distance through the rest of the troposphere. In the stratosphere , starting above about 20 km, the temperature increases with height, due to heating within the ozone layer caused by capture of significant ultraviolet radiation from the Sun by the dioxygen and ozone gas in this region. Still another region of increasing temperature with altitude occurs at very high altitudes, in the aptly-named thermosphere above 90 km.
The atmospheres of the terrestrial planets are somewhat similar to Earth’s. Mercury’s atmosphere contains only a thin exosphere dominated by hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. Venus’ atmosphere is much thicker than Earth’s, preventing a clear view of the planet. Its atmosphere is dominated by carbon dioxide, and features swirling clouds of sulfuric acid The atmosphere on Mars is also dominated by carbon dioxide, although unlike Venus, it is quite thin.
The atmosphere is the air that plants and animals breathe to survive. The atmosphere is made up of mostly nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%). There are lots of other gases that are part of the atmosphere, but in much smaller amounts. These include argon, carbon dioxide, neon, helium, hydrogen, and more. Oxygen is needed by animals to breathe and carbon dioxide is used by plant in photosynthesis.
By absorbing dangerous UV radiation, the ozone in the stratosphere protects us from skin cancer and other health damage. However chemicals (called CFCs or freons, and halons) which were once used in refrigerators, spray cans and fire extinguishers have reduced the amount of ozone in the stratosphere, particularly at polar latitudes, leading to the so-called “Antarctic ozone hole”.
The atmosphere is a mixture of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), and other gases (1%) that surrounds Earth. High above the planet, the atmosphere becomes thinner until it gradually reaches space. It is divided into five layers Most of the weather and clouds are found in the first layer.
Even above the Kármán line, significant atmospheric effects such as auroras still occur. Meteors begin to glow in this region, though the larger ones may not burn up until they penetrate more deeply. The various layers of Earth’s ionosphere , important to HF radio propagation, begin below 100 km and extend beyond 500 km. By comparison, the International Space Station and Space Shuttle typically orbit at 350-400 km, within the F-layer of the ionosphere where they encounter enough atmospheric drag to require reboosts every few months. Depending on solar activity, satellites can experience noticeable atmospheric drag at altitudes as high as 700-800 km.
The third layer of Earth’s atmosphere, the mesosphere extends from around 31 to 50 miles high (the height at which you are considered an astronaut by U.S. standards). Considered one of the coldest places on Earth, the average temperature is around -120°F. This layer is where most meteors burn up upon entering Earth’s atmosphere and is the highest elevation at which a cloud can form.
These percentages of atmospheric gases are for a completely dry atmosphere. The atmosphere is rarely, if ever, dry. Water vapor (water in a ‘gas’ state) is nearly always present up to about 4% of the total volume.
The thermosphere is the thickest layer in the atmosphere. Only the lightest gases—mostly oxygen, helium, and hydrogen—are found here. There is no clear definition between the Earth’s atmosphere and outer space. There are a few official guidelines, most are between 50 and 80 miles from the surface of the Earth.
The mesosphere starts at 31 miles (50 km) and extends to 53 miles (85 km) high. The top of the mesosphere, called the mesopause, is the coldest part of Earth’s atmosphere, with temperatures averaging about minus 130 degrees F (minus 90 C). This layer is hard to study. Jets and balloons don’t go high enough, and satellites and space shuttles orbit too high. Scientists do know that meteors burn up in this layer.
The troposphere is the atmospheric layer closest to the planet and contains the largest percentage (around 80%) of the mass of the total atmosphere. Temperature and water vapor content in the troposphere decrease rapidly with altitude. Water vapor plays a major role in regulating air temperature because it absorbs solar energy and thermal radiation from the planet’s surface. The troposphere contains 99 % of the water vapor in the atmosphere. Water vapor concentrations vary with latitude. They are greatest above the tropics, where they may be as high as 3 %, and decrease toward the polar regions.
Thermosphere: The thermosphere is a thermal classification of the atmosphere. In the thermosphere, temperature increases with altitude. The thermosphere includes the exosphere and part of the ionosphere.
The low temperatures and higher gravity of the Solar System’s giant planets — Jupiter , Saturn , Uranus and Neptune —allow them more readily to retain gases with low molecular masses These planets have hydrogen-helium atmospheres, with trace amounts of more complex compounds.
an opening in the Earth’s crust, through which lava, ash, and gases erupt, and also the cone built by eruptions. The volume fraction of the main constituents of the Earth’s atmosphere as a function of height according to the MSIS-E-90 atmospheric model.
Argon is used in light bulbs, in double-pane windows, and used to preserve the original Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. Plants use carbon dioxide to make oxygen. Carbon dioxide also acts as a blanket that prevents the escape of heat into outer space.
Air pollution is the introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals , particulate matter or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to organisms. 46 Stratospheric ozone depletion is caused by air pollution, chiefly from chlorofluorocarbons and other ozone-depleting substances.
The hot air from the equator eventually moves north or south to other climate regions. That warmer air combines with cooler air, mixing begins, and storms form. The constant mixing of the atmosphere maintains a stable system that helps organisms survive. Oxygen will never run out in one area of the planet and temperatures will not skyrocket in another. The atmosphere balances the possible extremes of the Earth and creates an overall stability.
An interactive simulation for the atmosphere model is available at this web site. With the simulation, you can change altitude and see the effects on pressure and temperature. The same atmosphere model is also used in the FoilSim and EngineSim computer simulators.
The Earth’s atmosphere was formed by planetary degassing, a process in which gases like carbon dioxide, water vapor, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen were released from the interior of the Earth from volcanoes and other processes. Life forms on Earth have modified the composition of the atmosphere since their evolution.
In the same way that there are layers inside of the Earth, there are also layers in the atmosphere. All of the layers interact with each other as the gases circulate around the planet. The lowest layers interact with the surface of the Earth while the highest layers interact with space. On your level, you may feel the atmosphere as a cool breeze. Other times you will feel it as a hot or humid day that seems to push on you from all sides.